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Главная страница » Библиотека » С.Г. Колтухов, В.Ю. Юрочкин. «От Скифии к Готии» (Очерки истории изучения варварского населения Степного и Предгорного Крыма (VII в. до н. э. — VII в. н. э.)

The summary

The monography generalizes the experience of Skythian's, late Skythian's study and Early Medieval Period in the territory of Crimean peninsula. The results of the work gave some interesting conclusions.

The study of monuments of iron century began in the Crimea in XIX century. Ot that time the brightest burial places of Scythians were found out. Ethnical and cultural attributions of burial places with greek-barbarous elements in barrows of European Bosporus stay discussible. These aristocratic, military tombs are considered by the researchers, as burial places of the hellenicited barbarians, presumably Scythians, who became a port of Bosporus aristocracy.

The Scythians's direction in Crimean archaeology was generated only in second half 20th century in connection with intensive excavation in zones of new building. It is connected with the scientific activity of T.N. Troitskaya, A.A. Tshchepinsky, E.V. Yakovenko, A.M. Leskov, V.S. Olhovsky. Thus, the science about Scythians antiquities in Crimea has appeared tobl more closely connected with archaeology of Classic Antiquity rather than with archaeology of Steppe Scythia.

One major problem of Scythians and Sarmatians archaeology in Crimea is the definition of connections and degree of continuity between early and late Scythians culture. Up to the 80th of 20th century they were considered as stages of development. One ethnic group and one culture. However, the chronological break between Scythians and Sarmatians monuments in the steppes of Northern Black Sea, proves to be true also by Crimean materials. Basing on it, some researchers come to a conclusion that Crimean Skythia 2nd century BC was a new association, bat not a direct successor Skythia 4th — first decades 3th centuries BC.

The review of modem sights on an ethnic and political history of Crimean Skythia 2nd century BC up to 3 th century AD testifies co-existence of two basic models of its ethnical and political development.

The concept of late Skythians kingdom in Crimea created by P.N. Shults on the basis of M.I. Rostovtzeff works continues to exist. Most consistently it is shown in scientific works of T.N. Visotskaya, considering Crimean Skythia sucvived in Sarmatian time to be a part of ancient Steppe Skythia. Other positions are submitted in the scientific works of the end last — beginning of present century. They are characteristic for works V.M. Zubar, S.G. Koltukhov, A.E. Puzdrovsky, I.N. Khrapunow. Now these scientists recognize chronological break between Skythians and late Scythians monuments. However they consider, that the culture of Crimean Scythia is based on a combination of traditions, characteristic for local Taurians-Scythians substratum with western and east elements introduced in Crimea. The scientists fix a high degree of hellénisation and Sarmatsation of the local barbarous population.

The works of Yu. P. Zaytsev testify thathad appeared a new concept of occurrence a the Crimean Skythia, whichis based on the modem chronology of cultures Sarmatians's type. To his mind the late Skythians's culture appears as the new phenomenon quickly developing in foothills of Northwest Crimea from middle — second half of 2nd century BC. Its sources Yu. P. Zaytsev sees in «east pulse». The E.N. Popova's opinion is interesting. She considers that the new inhabitants of western coast of Crimea were hellenisized Skythians, who moved from the Bospoms Cimmerian. The problem the existance of the Late Skythians state is not solved. The new materials are necessary for the final conclusions

The study of Crimean Gothia has passed some stages. The historians and archaeologists 19th — first quarter 20th centuries leaned on the numerous written sources, which evidenced about stay in medieval Crimea of the East German. For a long time the necropolis Suuk-Su near Gurzuf was considered as a reference monument «of Goth's culture» not only in the south Russia, but also in Western Europe. The first, who has doubted the belonging of the Suuk-Su culture to the Germans was V.I. Ravdonikas — the followers of the N.Ya. Marr «stage-concept». Showing the transition from «Alani stage» to «Goths stages», he based on authoritative opinion of M.I. Rostovtzeff, insisting on YRE Greek-Sarmatians origin «Goths style», and also on written sources 13—15th centuries in which are mentioned Crimean Alani.

The discredit of «Autochthon direction» is connected with the rout of N.Ua. Marr conception and political processes in USSR after the victory in the Second World war. The negative attitude to a problem of Goths in the Crimea was propagandized.

It is demonstrated by the materials of historical Session holding in Simferopol in 1952. A hypothesis about Slavic population in Crimea already in 3—4th centuries AD was put forward. This population correspoded with monuments of «chemyakhovskaya» culture.

Later researchers were using the elements both «Autochthonian», and «Migration» directions of development of culture in their works. Most brightly autochthonian directions was showed in the works of E.V. Veimam. «Migration» directions was characteristic for A. R Smirnov. At the same time V.V. Kropotkin has offered «a compromise method», doing an emphasis on revealing «ethnic signed» attributes of material culture and burial customs. He offered to search for sources of the various phenomena both in cultures of previous epoch Taurica, and outside peninsula.

At some moment archaeologists have ceased to perceive themselves dependent on the written tradition, entirely relying on archaeological reconstruction of ethnic structure of the population. This was promoted also by that fact, that the scientists working in Crimea actually have refused the allocation et special arcaeological Late Classic and Early Medieval Period cultures. Leaving out this stage of research, they passed at once to ethnic attribution of new founded monuments.

The important direction in study of Late Classic and Early Medieval Period monuments of Crimea became the development of absolute chronology of stock, begun V.K. Pudovin, continued A.K. Ambros, and then — A.I. Aibabin. The researchers considered the a boundary separating traditional cultures Northern Black Sea from cultures of epoch of Great Migrations — the middle of 3th century, i. e. the time of so-called «Goths's campaigns» or «Skythians's wars».

In Crimea were found the cremations whichis accepted to correspond with Goths, and earth crypts, that correspond with Alani of Nortpern Caucasus, that is why on the pages of the scientific sditions has appeared the statement of the «Goths — Alani union» existance. However, at ethnic attribution of monuments, first of all it is necessary to be guided by written tradition, giving back a priority to it, instead of «archaeological reconstruction». For the comparison of the historical peoples and archaeological monuments is necessarythe to singeout the archaeological cultures or groups of monuments.

So for the barbarous antiquities of the 3—4th centuries AD in a southern and southwest part of a peninsula the researchers offer such cultures as «Ai-Todor» and «Inkerman». In same territory in 5—9th centuries existed the culture «Suuk-su» had a place, which, in opinion of A.K. Ambroz, concerned to the Goths population of Crimea. «Inkerman» and «Suuk-su» culturs have much in common and, apparently, reflect the complex process of the country «Dori» formation, about which wrote Procopius.

 
 
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